location on a sphere requires a frame of reference
latitude, reference frame: poles and equator, angle from equator, degrees, minutes, seconds (N or S) , parallels of latitude
longitude, reference frame: prime meridian, 0° , degrees, minutes, seconds ( E or W), meridians of longitude
time zone, 15°
wide, central meridian +/- 7.5°
Title, date (and author or source), legend - symbols, colors, ..., scale, bar scale (graphic scale) , representative fraction - ratio, small (large area) vs large scale (detailed) , orientation - direction, true north, magnetic north (magnetic declination)
topographic maps: contour interval, contour lines, peak, valley, ridge, steep area, gentle slope
Compare the various ways of depicting the scale of a map. When are they useful? When are they not? What other features are essential to include in a good map?
Explain the difference between true north and magnetic north. Why does this difference matter?
Be prepared to locate the following features on a topographic map: peak, valley, ridge, steep area, flat area. Also be able to determine the elevation of any point on the map.