Causes: human factors, magma, faults (elastic rebound and energy release)
Location: epicenter, focus (hypocenter), depth, origin underground, scarp, surface break (rupture)
Seismic waves: seismogram; surface waves (damage), body waves, P-waves, compression, primary waves, fastest, S-waves, secondary waves, slower, not through liquid
Locating earthquake: time - distance graph, arrival time of S & P waves, three stations to locate
Magnitude: Richter scale, M 0-7?, Magnitude moment scale, Mw7-10?, amplitude, ground motion, 10X amplitude, Mercalli, I‑XII, damage done, subjective
Damage: ground rupture, ground motion, fire, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction
Compare and contrast the Richter scale and the Mercalli Scale in terms of range of values, what is measured, and effectiveness. Explain how the values on the Richter scale relate in terms of wave amplitude. Why has a new scale (Moment scale) been introduced to replace the Richter scale for large earthquakes? When is each scale most useful?
Explain the relationship between epicenter and hypocenter of an earthquake. Why is the ground rupture not always located at the epicenter?
What types of damage can be caused by an earthquake?
Explain the difference between p-waves and s-waves. Which doesn’t travel through liquid? How are they used to determine the location of an earthquake? Given several seismograms, be able to explain which is closest to the epicenter.